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    Virtualization Feature Guide

    MRT v1.4 and v1.5 have major virtualization upgrades after switching to @tanstack/react-virtual v3.0!

    Virtualization is useful when you have a lot of data you want to display client-side all at once without having to use pagination. Material React Table makes this as simple as possible, thanks to @tanstack/react-virtual with both row virtualization and column virtualization support.

    NOTE: You should only enable row virtualization if you have a large number of rows. Depending on the size of the table, if you are rendering less than a couple dozen rows at a time, you will actually just be adding extra overhead to the table renders. Virtualization only becomes necessary when you have more than 50 rows or so at the same time with no pagination.

    Relevant Props

    MutableRefObject<Virtualizer | null>
    Partial<VirtualizerOptions<HTMLDivElement, HTMLTableCellElement>>
    MRT Virtualization Docs
    MRT Virtualization Docs
    MutableRefObject<Virtualizer | null>
    Partial<VirtualizerOptions<HTMLDivElement, HTMLTableRowElement>>

    What is Virtualization?

    Virtualization, or virtual scrolling, works by only rendering the rows or columns that are visible on the screen. This is useful for performance and user experience, as we can make it appear that there are hundreds, thousands, or even tens of thousands of rows in the table all at once, but in reality, the table will only render the couple dozen rows that are visible on the screen, or the handful of columns that are visible on the screen.

    For more reading on the concept of virtualization, we recommend this blog post by LogRocket.

    Does Your Table Even Need Virtualization?

    If your table is paginated or you are not going to render more than 50 rows at once, you probably do not need row virtualization.

    If your table does not have more than 12 columns, you probably do not need column virtualization.

    There is a slight amount of extra overhead that gets added to your table's rendering when virtualization is enabled, so do not just enable it for every table. That being said, if your table does have well more than 100 rows that it is trying to render all at once without pagination, performance should improve significantly once it has been enabled.

    Enable Row Virtualization

    Enabling row virtualization is as simple as setting the enableRowVirtualization prop to true. However, you will probably also want to turn off pagination, which you can do by setting enablePagination to false.


    Take a look at the example below with 10,000 rows!


    Open StackblitzOpen Code SandboxOpen on GitHub

    Source Code

    1import React, { useEffect, useMemo, useRef, useState } from 'react';
    2import {
    3 MaterialReactTable,
    4 type MRT_ColumnDef,
    5 type MRT_SortingState,
    6 type MRT_Virtualizer,
    7} from 'material-react-table';
    8import { makeData, type Person } from './makeData';
    10const Example = () => {
    11 const columns = useMemo<MRT_ColumnDef<Person>[]>(
    12 //column definitions...
    57 );
    59 //optionally access the underlying virtualizer instance
    60 const rowVirtualizerInstanceRef =
    61 useRef<MRT_Virtualizer<HTMLDivElement, HTMLTableRowElement>>(null);
    63 const [data, setData] = useState<Person[]>([]);
    64 const [isLoading, setIsLoading] = useState(true);
    65 const [sorting, setSorting] = useState<MRT_SortingState>([]);
    67 useEffect(() => {
    68 if (typeof window !== 'undefined') {
    69 setData(makeData(10_000));
    70 setIsLoading(false);
    71 }
    72 }, []);
    74 useEffect(() => {
    75 //scroll to the top of the table when the sorting changes
    76 try {
    77 rowVirtualizerInstanceRef.current?.scrollToIndex?.(0);
    78 } catch (error) {
    79 console.error(error);
    80 }
    81 }, [sorting]);
    83 return (
    84 <MaterialReactTable
    85 columns={columns}
    86 data={data} //10,000 rows
    87 enableBottomToolbar={false}
    88 enableGlobalFilterModes
    89 enablePagination={false}
    90 enableRowNumbers
    91 enableRowVirtualization
    92 muiTableContainerProps={{ sx: { maxHeight: '600px' } }}
    93 onSortingChange={setSorting}
    94 state={{ isLoading, sorting }}
    95 rowVirtualizerInstanceRef={rowVirtualizerInstanceRef} //optional
    96 rowVirtualizerProps={{ overscan: 8 }} //optionally customize the virtualizer
    97 />
    98 );
    101//virtualizerInstanceRef was renamed to rowVirtualizerInstanceRef in v1.5.0
    102//virtualizerProps was renamed to rowVirtualizerProps in v1.5.0
    104export default Example;

    Enable Column Virtualization

    New in MRT v1.5!

    Enabling column virtualization is also as simple as setting the enableColumnVirtualization prop to true.

    <MaterialReactTable columns={columns} data={data} enableColumnVirtualization />

    Take a look at the example below with 500 columns!


    Rows per page

    1-10 of 10

    Source Code

    1import React, { useRef } from 'react';
    2import { MaterialReactTable, type MRT_Virtualizer } from 'material-react-table';
    3import { fakeColumns, fakeData } from './makeData';
    5const Example = () => {
    6 //optionally access the underlying virtualizer instance
    7 const columnVirtualizerInstanceRef =
    8 useRef<MRT_Virtualizer<HTMLDivElement, HTMLTableCellElement>>(null);
    10 return (
    11 <MaterialReactTable
    12 columnVirtualizerInstanceRef={columnVirtualizerInstanceRef} //optional
    13 columnVirtualizerProps={{ overscan: 4 }} //optionally customize the virtualizer
    14 columns={fakeColumns} //500 columns
    15 data={fakeData}
    16 enableColumnVirtualization
    17 enablePinning
    18 enableRowNumbers
    19 />
    20 );
    23export default Example;

    WARNING: Do not enable row or column virtualization conditionally. This could break React's Rule of Hooks and/or cause other UI jumpiness.

    Virtualization Side Effects

    When either row or column virtualization is enabled, a few other props automatically get set internally.

    layoutMode Prop

    In MRT Versions 1.3 and earlier, a CSS table-layout: fixed style was automatically added to the <table> element to prevent columns from wiggling back and forth during scrolling due to body cells having varying widths.

    But now in MRT Versions 1.4 and later, the layoutMode prop is automatically set to the 'grid' value when either row or column virtualization is enabled, which means that all of the table markup will use CSS Grid and Flexbox instead of the traditional semantic styles that usually come with table tags. This is necessary to make the virtualization work properly with decent performance.

    enableStickyHeader Prop

    The enableStickyHeader prop is automatically set to true when row virtualization is enabled. This keeps the table header sticky and visible while scrolling and adds a default max-height of 100vh to the table container.

    Customize Virtualizer Props

    You can adjust some of the virtualizer props that are used internally with the rowVirtualizerProps and columnVirtualizerProps props. The most useful virtualizer props are the overscan and estimateSize options. You may want to adjust these values if you have unusual row heights or column widths that are causing the default scrolling to behave strangely.

    overscan: 5, //adjust the number of columns that are rendered to the left and right of the visible area of the table
    estimateSize: () => 400, //if your columns are wider or , try tweaking this value to make scrollbar size more accurate
    overscan: 10, //adjust the number or rows that are rendered above and below the visible area of the table
    estimateSize: () => 100, //if your rows are taller than normal, try tweaking this value to make scrollbar size more accurate

    See the official TanStack Virtualizer Options API Docs for more information.

    MRT v1.4 upgraded from react-virtual v2 to @tanstack/react-virtual v3.0, which has some breaking changes and virtualizer option name changes. TypeScript hints should help you with any prop name changes, but you can also view the official TanStack Virtual Docs for guidance.

    Access Underlying Virtualizer Instances

    In a similar way that you can access the underlying table instance, you can also access the underlying virtualizer instances. This can be useful for accessing methods like the scrollToIndex method, which can be used to programmatically scroll to a specific row or column.

    const columnVirtualizerInstanceRef = useRef<Virtualizer>(null);
    const rowVirtualizerInstanceRef = useRef<Virtualizer>(null);
    useEffect(() => {
    if (rowVirtualizerInstanceRef.current) {
    //scroll to the top of the table when sorting changes
    }, [sorting]);
    return (

    See the official TanStack Virtualizer Instance API Docs for more information.

    Full Row and Column Virtualization Example

    Try out the performance of the fully virtualized example with 10,000 rows and over a dozen columns! Filtering, search, and sorting also maintain usable performance.

    View Extra Storybook Examples